Combusion Synthesis

What is Combustion Synthesis (CS) Method?

  • CS is Synthesis Technology for inorganic materials, developed by Dr. Merzhanov in 1975.
    CS achieves low energy consumption synthesis by utilizing Reaction Heat Effectively
    A + B → AB -ΔH (>0)
    (e.g. Fe2O3 + 2Al → 2Fe + Al2O3:ΔH= -846kJ)
  • CS is often called as SHS (Self- propagating High-temperature Synthesis)

Thermal Gradient

※Modified figure from website of Prof.Odawara labo in Tokyo Inst. of Tech

Why CS method is interested?


  • Low Energy Consumption
  • Shot time for synthesis
  • Reaction
    in non-equilibrium phase
  • High
  • Simple Facility
  • High Productivity
  • Achievement of more than 200 types of synthesis


  • Powder material
  • Metal lining
  • Jointing & Sintering

Material synthesized by CS method

Types material applications
Aluminum series TiAl3, NiAl Airplane parts, turbine blades
Boron series NbB, NbB2, TiB2 Abrasives, machining tools
Carbide series TiC, WC, SiC Cutting tools, Reinforcing material
Hydride series MgFeH6, MgH2 Hydrogen Storage Alloy
Nitride Series SiAlON,AlN, Si3N4 Bearing balls, thermal conductive material (insulator)
Oxide series SrCeO3,YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconducting material, Cell active material

Products by CS method (

Future Developing ~CS Potential~

CS has been integrated with various materials & processes

Future Developing ~Typical Synthesis by CS~


Carbid : Ti + C = TiC
Nitride : 3Si + 2N2 = Si3N4
Hydride : Zr + H2 = ZrH2

RedOx reaction Oxide to Nitride : B2O3 +3Mg + N2 = 2BN + 3MgO
Oxide to Carbide : 3TiO2 + C + 4Al = TiC + 2Al2O3
Chloride to Nitride : 2TiCl4 + 8Na + N2 = 2TiN + 8NaCl
Metal Composite Oxide Perovskite :
3Cu + 2BaO2 + 1/2Y2O3 + 0.5(1.5 - x)O2 = YBa2Cu3O7-x 
Trigonal :
Nb + Li2O2 + 1/2Ni2O5 = 2LiNbO3
Hexagonal :
8Fe + SrO + 2Fe2O3 + 6O2 = SrFe12O19
Composition of Oxides PbO + WO3 = PbWO4
Decomposition 2TiH2 + N2 = 2TiN + 2H2
4Al + NaN3 + NH4Cl = 4AlN + NaCl + 2H2
2BH3N2H4 = 2BN + N2 + 7H2

Future Developing ~Results of Akiyama Labo.~

Metal Hydride

MgH2, MgH2 (nanofiber), TiFeH2, LaNi5H6, Mg2FeH6, Mg2NiH4, MgNiCu, TiFeNi, MgNiFe

Fine Ceramics a- SiAlON, b-SiAlON, a/b-SiAlON, b-SiAlONV(Eu2+doped)
Battery materials La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LaMO3 (M = Fe, Co, Mn), LiMn2O4
Dielectric materials SrTiO3
Thermoelectric materials Sr1-xRxTiO3 (R=Y, La, Sm Gd, Dy), NaxCo2O4, La(Sr)Ga(Mg)O3 Ca3Co4O9 (Bi doped)
Catalyst Mn1−δO, Fe1−δO, ZnO (Al doped), LaFeO3 La∫SrxFeO3, La1-xSrxMnyFe1-yO3z

Future Developing ~Solution Combustion Synthesis~

“Solution Combustion Synthesis” is a good synthesis method at Low temperature by using RedOx reaction of Nitrate Salts (as Oxidants) and Organic Compounds like Urea (as Reductant, Fuel ), by which nano powder can be synthesized easily

Future Developing ~Solution Combustion Synthesis~

eg.) 2Al(NO3)3 + 5CH4N2O → α-Al2O3 + gases ( NO, CO2, H2O etc.)
LiNO3 + NiNO3 + MnNO3 + NH2CH2COOH  →  LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4  + gases
  (at Akiyama Labo.)